First things first, a Soil Pipe is a pipe that conveys sewage or wastewater reliably, either from the toilet or sink to a soil drain or sewer. Needless to say, there are many pipes within your home that carry water, but there are just as many that carry waste from your property.
Choosing Plastic Pipes needn’t be difficult- not when Total Pipeline Systems provide a complete range of products that inevitably match your exact specification.
As your go-to provider of Plastic Piping, Total Pipes are more than capable of delivering suitable products for your intended application, ensuring that you achieve the functionality that you require.
Plastic Pipes from Total Pipeline Systems hold countless advantages over pipes that are manufactured from cast iron and copper- it’s no surprise that they have increased in popularity when they offer a more convenient and affordable alternative for so many applications.
Could you benefit from our wide range of Plastic Piping?
Plastic piping is quickly becoming the preferred choice of various professionals. Increasingly more people are choosing plastic pipes and pipe fittings over the concrete, clay, iron and steel counterparts, and it’s no surprise when they have countless benefits to offer!
Here at Total Pipeline Systems, we are proud to supply the essentials for all pipe requirements, ensuring that you find products that suit your application and budget seamlessly. From our extensive collection of soil pipes and pipe fittings, you’re bound to find exactly what you’re looking for, so be sure to check them out today!
When it comes to finding twin wall ducting for your unique application, you’ll find that Total Pipeline Systems supplies a comprehensive range of ducting for you to choose from, taking into consideration the demands of any civil, utility or telecommunication project.
Are you looking to prevent damage? The twin wall pipes and ducting that we provide are perfect if you need to alert people to the presence of your underground drainage, informing them of what is carried within it.
If you’re looking to enhance the performance of your underground drainage, you’ve come to the right place! Here at Total Pipeline Systems, we specialise in underground drainage products for domestic and commercial applications, so you needn’t worry about finding something suitable for your drainage project.
Whether you’re looking for drainage gullies or gully traps, we can help you to find only the most suitable products for your drainage system, so be sure to check out our range of products here today!
Throughout the winter, your pipes and drains can experience some of the most adverse weather conditions. Total Pipeline Systems supply a complete range of underground drainage products, allowing you to deal with whatever the winter throws at you!
As a simple rule of thumb, water expands when it freezes, therefore, you need to make sure that your drains are protected.
There are several ways in which you can prepare your underground drainage system, including the following:
Updating rainwater systems can be many people’s worst nightmare. With so many products to choose from, it can be incredibly difficult to identify exactly what you need but that’s where we come in.
Our experts, here at Total Pipeline Systems, are always on hand to help when it comes to choosing suitable products for your application, so be sure to discuss your requirements with us in further detail today.
Let’s weigh up just how reliable rainwater systems are…
Here at Total Pipeline Systems, we provide a wide range of underground drainage products, suiting a wide range of budget requirements.
If you’re looking to get the most out of your underground drainage systems, you needn’t look any further than Total Pipes. Here’s how we recommend you maintain your systems for longer:
Needless to say, rain is only a stones through away in the UK and maintaining your channel drainage is a must if you want to keep your costs to a minimum! After a heavy downpour, your channel drainage can take a battering, hence why you may consider updating your drainage channel, before the summer.
Although the summer is an ideal time to update your channel drainage, you may need to replace your channel drain before then, especially after periods of intense rainfall. If this is the case, you can count on Total Pipeline Systems to provide you with all you need to improve the efficiency of your drainage channels!
Understandably, you want to acquire the most suitable tools for your underground drainage products, so why look anywhere other than Total Pipeline Systems? We have the skill and knowledge to help you to find exactly what you’re looking for, whether it be drain chambers or pipes and pipe fittings!
You want to prevent the risk of damage to underground drainage systems (and rightly so!) so if you’re looking for a clearer understanding of how underground drainage works, be sure to get in touch with our experts.
Heavy rainfall is not uncommon in the UK and here at Total Pipeline Systems we can help you to protect your property throughout the worst downpours of the seasons, so be sure to check out our rainwater systems!
Carrying out regular maintenance will not only allow you to prolong the lifespan of your products, you’ll also have the opportunity to prevent any further damage. We provide drainage pipes, guttering and fittings and downpipes.
Whether you’re looking to update your existing pipes and fittings or to replace them, you needn’t look any further than Total Pipes!
We provide the 110mm underground drainage pipes to suit the requirements of various plumbing applications, ultimately preventing any plumbing problems, further down the line. Why not check out our extensive range of underground drainage pipes today?
With the winter leaming, you can bet we’re in for a downpour. Here at Total Pipes, we provide all you could possibly need to improve the functionality of your home, protecting it against all weathers, so be sure to check out our extensive range of rainwater systems and gutter supplies today.
The last thing you want is for your gutters to become blocked with leaves and debris, but you also want to prevent them from over-spilling after heavy rainfall or snow!
Total Pipeline Systems supply a wide range of high-quality pipes and pipe fittings to suit the most diverse needs and requirements, within this collection, you can expect to find the 110mm underground drainage products too.
Deciding which soil pipes are right for your application needn’t be difficult! Here at Total Pipeline Systems, we provide a complete range of high-quality soil pipes and pipe fittings, don’t hesitate to find out more today!
What are drainage gullies?
Drainage gullies act to drain surface water from areas susceptible to flooding and water collection such as roads, pedestrian areas, flat roofs, and can be used in conjunction with ground floor domestic appliances to remove waste water.
Total Pipeline Systems has the perfect solution for your business needs and wants, take the 110mm underground drainage, for instance. To prevent your business becoming afloat after periods of intense rainfall, the 110mm underground drainage pipes are ideal!
Similar to the installation of land drainage pipes, the conditions throughout the winter are not ideal for installing round downpipes! A rainwater system is best fitted when the conditions are dry, it’s much easier and efficient.
So, why not install round downpipes throughout the summer months and be well prepared for the forthcoming winter?
If you don’t maintain your drainage system periodically it might be worth considered replacing your current system, as you can’t be sure that it’s performing to the best of its ability. A poorly maintained rainwater system will not be efficient, in terms of functionality and affordability.
There’s no time like the summer to update your office or your green space, so why not consider Total Pipeline Systems range of products and services today? We provide products and services for contractors, ground workers and plumbers, however, we also supply pipe solutions for anyone who requires high-quality pipes.
Throughout the winter, there are many things you have to off-set due to unpredictable weather conditions, for instance cleaning the warehouse gutters is definitely a job for the summer - who wants to be up on the roof when it’s pouring down with rain?
Additionally, there’s no time like the present to remove blockages and prevent leakages! The summer is ideal for maintaining your business’ worksite and making any necessary improvements plumping and draining. Pipes should be regularly inspected to ensure there is a clear transfer of waste - so speak to us at Total Pipes for any advice and guidance!
The pipes which are used to convey toilet waste to a sewer or drainage system are referred to as a soil pipe. Total Pipes have a wide range of soil pipes available, in various shapes, sizes and colours.
Here at Total Pipes, we have many different types of soil pipes including push fit and solvent weld - both of which are suitable for civil engineering and professional plumbing projects.
If you have any plumbing concerns, consider Total Pipes to have the perfect solution. We specialise in modern drainage systems, hence why we provide soil pipe fittings and waste pipe fittings.
Total Pipeline Systems are experienced in providing products for rainwater systems. Regardless of your needs for style, we never compromise on functionality, with all of our guttering systems created to last and are available in a range of colours and sizes to match the aesthetic of your home.
Electrofusion is a method of fusing two pipes together that could not be joined using traditional butt fusion. This usually occurs when the pipes require the addition of valves, tees or elbows to connect. Despite its fancy title, the procedure of electrofusion is quite a simple one, which can be characterised by the following three steps.
Traditional pipeline surveying is usually achieved with the use of a camera tractor, which runs between manholes, allowing small scale surveying through underground pipes. Another method of traditional surveying concerns manually pulling a camera backwards through a similarly small length of pipeline, with the use of a ‘fish’ pulled along on a rope.
What constitutes an effective underground drainage system? Amongst other factors, it’s important to use the correct type of pipework to meet industry regulations and avoid leaks. There are many things to bear in mind when installing a high-quality underground drainage system, but using the best quality products is probably the most essential consideration. Total Pipeline Systems are premier plastic pipe suppliers and we have the expertise to help you with all your drainage challenges. What pipework products can we offer you?
Living in the United Kingdom we’re all very aware that the biggest challenge to our homes and offices is damage from rainwater, and it rains a lot! That’s why it’s so important to choose the right rainwater system for your needs. With that in mind we’ve compiled a list of the four most important factors you need to consider when choosing your rainwater
Depending upon whether you are installing a new drainage system or intending to make alternations to an existing drainage network; you should always ensure that you liaise with the Building Control Department at your local Council. And present plans which outline the scope of works to be executed, making sure that the works comply with the latest Building Regulations, since fundamentally the works will need inspecting afterwards and passing off. Conversely if you are simply replacing sections that are damaged then this alleviates the necessary aforesaid notification.
Total Pipeline Systems has created a timeline to help readers get a better understanding on the historical journey of plumbing or drainage pipes. The following timeline begins by discussing the earliest drainage system to ever exist in the Minoan Palace of Knossos on the Isle of Crete, to the development of sewage and drain ditches and how homeowners had the pleasure of installing water systems in Plymouth, until the time when materials used in pipes were developed and improved.
As with many modern facilities located in both the city and countryside, water is used to maintain them. The water keeps the area clean from dirt and the surrounding natural environment, such as large patches of grass, is kept in a healthy state. In addition, rainwater also plays a role to maintain these facilities without human intervention. When rainwater is absent, sprinkler systems help a lot in keeping the soil quality up to par. However, it is essential that a proper irrigation system be utilised so that it does not destroy the beauty of such human made terrain. This applies to many modern sporting facilities such as golf courses and many others. With proper pipes for irrigation systems, the large patches of beautiful land can last a very long time.
In the piping industry, there are different types of materials used for all sorts of utilities. From pipes to guttering systems, the quality of these materials improve over time and the selection of quality grade materials can be purchased in many different hardware stores. Many large industries have certain standards of what they use for their projects. For instance, in the old days, cast iron pipes were the norm but has been slowly replaced by more preferable HDPE pipes due to their durability and ease of installation. Even home owners swear to a certain type of grade material for their home DIY projects, but the choices have now increased thanks to the innovation of technology in the piping industry. Depending on which pipe part a consumer requires, most will look for suppliers and brands that have a recognised image in the piping industry. One exception of such brand is the Kanaflex hose.
The availability of pipes and their variants are an essential part of our daily lives. We almost never see them as our minds are not set to focus on them during normal routines. Unless you are someone who works in the pipe industry, pipes become a daily meal and knowing the different types of pipes and their build is like knowing the back of your hand. Pipes have come a long way from just being the old and clunky cast iron pipe found (still) in a lot of homes across many countries. Fortunately for the most of us, technology has enable us to be supplied and supported with newer generations and variants of better quality pipes.
Intro to industrial plastics
When choosing an industry grade plastic for piping needs, there is quite an extensive range of plastics to choose from. Every single variant has its own unique capabilities and limitations which are ideal for certain purposes in industry. From cheap to expensive, the choices are only limited to each type’s specifications and to the needs of the individual who is to apply them. Plastic pipes are most often used for transporting clean water one way and guiding wastewater another.
Two of the most commonly found industrial plastics are PVC and ABS. ABS stands for acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and PVC stands for polyvinyl chloride. Both types are popular choices due to their availability, prices, as well as for their properties as being non-toxic and their resistance to abrasion and corrosion, as well as their resistance to most acids, alkalis, and salts. Furthermore, they both can be applied above and below ground. Most people know PVC or ABS simply as “pipes”, but surprisingly they are also used in a wide range of other industry grade products.
PVC has a wide range of applications. It is extremely durable and flexible at a low price. It is commonly known to be used for pipes, however it is also used for other applications such as:
- Toys (and Legos)
- Protective head gear
- Golf club heads
PVC pipes are a little bit more challenging to install over ABS as they need a specialised primer before being glued together. Afterwards, the joints have to be held together at a firm position for about 10 to 15 seconds for the glue to settle in. PVC pipes are generally softer than ABS which can make them ideal in some situations and is generally resistant to sunlight which avoids it from being deformed or cracked.
Similarly like PVC, ABS is used for pipes and is famously known as “the black pipe”. It is used for a very wide range of utilities such as:
ABS is strong, rigid, and very cheap. In construction, ABS is commonly used in drainage and sewer systems, as well as for electrical insulation. ABS is much easier to install over PVC pipes as the parts generally fit together without much effort. However, if ABS is exposed to direct sunlight when used above ground, there is a greater chance for it to deform and possibly crack. For this reason, ABS pipes are usually coated with specialised latex paint to act as a layer of protection towards ultraviolet rays.
Both types of plastic pipes share a common weakness towards chlorinated hydrocarbons which can deform or crack the pipe’s wall. Although they are both relatively cheap, many have opted for PVC over ABS but this is a subject of personal preference. ABS is much stronger than PVC as it can withstand impact at lower temperatures but deforms under sunlight if no paint is applied. On the other hand, PVC is not as sturdy but is more flexible and softer which can make it ideal in case specific circumstances.
Both types of pipes work well in many applications, but before purchasing one of the two, careful consideration should be taken towards the environmental aspects of where these pipes will be applied. There is nothing wrong with working with these two types of pipes in combination, as they do not always have to be uniformly used in conjunction. For instance, one might use PVC for above ground applications and ABS for below ground. It all goes back to the choice of the individual who will be working with these pipes.
Nothing lasts forever, not even pipes. Being an essential part of a water system, ductile iron pipes serve the function of transporting water throughout a working system. These pipes are the “upgraded” version of what was more commonly used: the cast iron pipe. As with most metals, they tend to corrode overtime and may even cause a health hazard if left untreated. In addition, corroding pipes leads to leakage and will sever any water supply in any water system. Two viable options are either to repair damaged pipes or do a complete replacement. Either way, repairing your pipe system will be costly and the work will require heavy-duty maintenance. As the old saying goes “If it’s not broken, don’t fix it”. However, you will be able to save large amounts of money through careful inspection of any of your pipes and then fixing any problems that you encounter.
Cast Iron and Ductile Iron Pipes
With most pipes being in the ground, they are covered by soil. Almost all soil contains a pH scale which determines its acidity. With this it creates an acidic environment which surrounds your pipes and causes it to corrode overtime from the outside. If you live or operate a business with pipe properties that date to the early 1900s, there is a good chance that most of the pipes will need to be replaced, if not so already. Buildings as early as from the early 19th century have mostly cast iron pipes built through them. If you know that any structure you might live or operate in was built around and after the 1970’s, there is a very strong chance that the pipes used were of ductile iron pipes which are an upgraded version of cast iron pipes.
What to Consider Before Making a Choice
Before coming to any major decisions, if you are ever in doubt it is highly recommended that you call upon an expert who can check your pipes for you. As replacing entire pipe systems can be extremely expensive, the plumber or whoever is inspecting the pipes should check for corrosion and water flow. Signs of failing pipes can be seen through limited water flow due to rust flakes which develop overtime from the insides of the pipes rusting from corrosive sulfuric acid, as well as reduced quality of water supply due to chemical contamination. Since we have the corrosive properties of soil itself from the outside including the effects of sulfuric acid from the inside, it’s a two way battle. No matter if it is cast iron pipes or ductile iron pipes, they will eventually corrode. This is why we need to enforce the fact that the inspector or plumber is someone who really knows pipes inside out. Their careful judgment and your decision will determine the amount of money spent on repairs or replacements. You might even have to destroy building parts in order to reach the pipes themselves.
If you plan on doing any renovations towards your home or work area and have money to spend, replacing pipes will prove to be an excellent benefit. You should also take a look at other pipe material alternatives such as PVC or galvanised steel to find the ideal balance of pipe life expectancy, reduced risks and cost saving measures. Furthermore, you should also take into consideration that either by replacing old pipes or even maintaining them will prove to be costly. Choose wisely.
Large industries and homeowners apply different types of piping for various purposes, including drainage, water supply, and even gas utilities. The quality of material depends greatly on the user’s budget and application. There are various different pipes to choose from, each with their certain advantages and disadvantages. Choosing the right one can be a total nightmare for the inexperienced homeowner, as they tend to buy pipes that they believe will serve them just fine. However, one should consider the benefits of choosing the right pipe for certain types of applications. If you happen to be one of those people, you are in luck because we're going to describe to you the benefits and drawbacks of two of the most common types of industrial pipes; PVC and ABS pipes.
PVC pipes are the most common pipes used in many areas. PVC stands for polyvinyl chloride, which is the material they are made from. The material itself is utilized for water pipes, toys, clothes, shower curtains, and even used for cable insulation, amongst other things. One of the benefits of using PVC is that it is flexible, extremely durable under harsh conditions, and relatively cheap to purchase. One possible downside to PVC is that it is made from materials which contain a substance called BPA (bisphenol A). This substance has been used in the plastic making industry for many years and the potential risk of a PVC pipe is if you use it for transporting drinking water, as it contains this BPA. Using PVC for anything else besides that won’t be too much of a problem however. Yet one other drawback of PVC is that it requires a longer process to join together and you will need additional materials for this.
ABS pipes, similar to PVC pipes, are also used for various purposes. ABS stands for acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. The material is used to make items such as toys, like Legos, musical instruments, golf club heads, car bumpers, kitchen appliances and many others. The benefits of ABS are that it is tough, rigid, affordable, and much easier to install than PVC. One of the drawbacks of utilising ABS above ground is its poor resistance to sunlight; the pipes tend to deform during prolonged exposure to sunlight. However, the direct sunlight problem can be bypassed easily by applying a coat of ultraviolet resistant paint. Finally, ABS pipes are able to withstand impact much better than PVC at lower temperatures.
Which one is for me?
The final step is making the right decision on which pipe material to choose. First, you need to consider your budget. Are you willing to dedicate some money to pipe instalments? If so, go for PVC. If you are on the tight side, aim for ABS. Next is purpose, what are you using these pipes for? Are you going to use them above or below ground? Alternately, will they be exposed to extreme weather and sunlight? If this is the case, you might consider ABS for below ground applications and PVC for above ground due to its resistance to direct sunlight and since ABS deforms under these conditions. If you live in a much colder environment without much sunlight anyway, ABS is the way to go. Furthermore, if you do not want to go through a lot of trouble installing your pipes, ABS is relatively easy to install and connect as you will not require any additional materials or components. Lastly, if you are ever unsure about the specifications of the pipes that you require, you should always consult the hardware store for more advice.
There are various household and industrial products available in the open market for maintaining gas in daily operations. Whether you’re a house owner, an apartment landlord or a factory manager, choosing and installing a gas meter is as important as maintaining your water and electricity flow. From the different gas pipe fittings, housings, valves, and meters available, choosing a suitable component to match any individual’s requirement can be a nightmare in terms of compatibility and durability. However, there are several items that have been recommended over the course of the application of certain components. In particular, gas meters have been an area of interest. From different variants and housings, choosing the right component for your projects requires no real decision making process if you know the basics.
Basic Function of a Gas Meter
Gas meters are used for various purposes in consumer, industrial, and commercial environments to regulate gas flow. For instance, in apartments where gas is supplied for the inhabitants (for cooking, etc.), a gas meter is used for billing purposes, which shows how much gas the inhabitants are using. If the gas meters are of higher gas flow pressure, they are often installed outside the main building of application for safety reasons. Normally, lower pressure gas meters are installed indoors. However, in the UK it’s the opposite, as usually these meters are sometimes located inside.
Variants and Build Quality
Since there are different and more complex meters available, whether you need to control and maintain gas flow for your projects or utilities, gas meters comes generally in standard and non-standard variants. For standard gas meters, they can virtually be purchased easily in most hardware stores and is always used for low-pressure gas maintenance. A maximum delivery of 1,680 kilowatts (kW) is typical in a standard gas meter. Standard gas meters are manufactured by many different companies and come in different varieties.
If you plan on having a gas service pressure in the medium to high range, you will need to purchase and install a non-standard gas meter. Purchasing a non-standard gas meter will require pre-ordering. They will be designed from scratch from the moment we order them and only produced as soon as the order and purchase have been made. Proper installation and consultation is needed and recommended before you commit to any purchases.
Different gas meters come with a wide variety of indicators. Some of them utilise multiple pointer-styled hand clocks or digital readouts, which closely resembles an odometer, to even remote readouts which are the current trend nowadays. These remote readouts utilise an electronic pulse output, which is mounted on the meter. Different styles are made available, however the most commonly used one is the contact closure switch.
If you plan on installing a gas meter and housing from scratch, it is recommended that you consult with a Gas Safe Engineer to ensure proper installation and safety measures. In general, a low-pressure gas meter can be installed inside a building, but medium to higher-pressure ones will be required to be installed outside in a suitable housing. The gas housing itself plays an important role in protecting the actual gas meters as well as the consumer from gas build-up, the dangers of explosions, theft, and even damage from the weather. A free standing gas meter will require concrete to hold it (as well as the housing), but another bolt on variant is also made available if the meter were to be wall mounted half in the wall and half out, and even a semi-concealed box which lies half above and half underground. These housings are normally made from plastic, are durable and strong, and will last a relatively long time.
Which One to Choose
Whether you’re installing a gas meter for personal or industrial use, just remember the two areas that we need to take into consideration when choosing a gas meter: the service pressure of the gas in the mains and the maximum gas load that an individual might require. Depending on what you need, there is a wide range of fittings to choose from. For gas meters, just remember that if you need low pressure with a maximum delivery of 1,680 kilowatts (kW), go for the standard gas meter. Anything higher than that, consider the non-standard gas meter. You will also need to decide on a proper housing and suitable location for the non-standard gas meter. Consult a professional before you decide on purchasing and installing one for security reasons.
Brief background on septic systems:
In areas that lack proper sewage treatment systems, a septic system is used to contain all waste which humans make. These septic systems are installed in areas that have a minimal connection to the main sewage pipes in the surrounding neighbourhood. Most of these septic systems are controlled and maintained by private corporations or by the local government. Additional components may also be provided, such as pumps and filters, as well as additional disposal systems, including drain fields and ponds.
Function of septic tanks:
Certain types of septic systems utilise septic tanks. Septic tanks are a form of on-site sewage facility. Several countries incorporate the use of septic tanks and they are usually found in small towns and suburban and rural areas. Larger cities normally do not utilise septic tanks due to the space requirement for their large drain fields. Septic tanks are usually installed outside the corresponding building, usually around a large open space, and are generally constructed of concrete or hard plastic. Modern septic systems are usually equipped with two chambers. Each chamber acts as the ‘filter’ element in the septic system, separating the main solids and liquids.
How does it work:
A septic system works when all the waste produced inside a household is funnelled into their separate outlet pipes. Eventually, these pipes connect to a main pipe that connects to the septic tank. In the first chamber of the septic tank, the collected waste gets separated into two major parts. The heavier components (waste) sink to the bottom. This heavier component is called “sludge”. The latter, called “scum”, floats to the upper surface. In between the top and bottom layers, one finds a relatively clear liquid called “effluent” or “grey water”. In the first chamber of the septic tank, an anaerobic bacterial environment takes place naturally due to the decomposition of waste. From there, the clear liquid is moved along into the other chamber where further settlement occurs. After that, the more clarified liquid is finally processed along a drain outlet and dispersed into the drain field.
How are they emptied:
Any waste (sludge) that does not decay in the anaerobic bacterial environment must be removed manually from septic tanks. If the waste is not removed, a degradation of the septic tank’s functionality will certainly occur. The less ‘purified’ waste will continue to the last process of the septic waste management and this waste will be ejected into the natural environment. This could prove to be a nightmare and would be considered an environmental hazard. Furthermore, this ‘unpurified’ waste may clog up the drain chambers and may force a disastrous ‘back flow’. If left unmaintained, huge maintenance cost will likely occur. To make matters worse, the dumping of oil, grease, food waste, non-biodegradable solids and liquids with high salt concentrations certainly will degrade the septic tank’s performance. Due to this fact, periodical inspection and maintenance is recommended. The frequency in which inspection occurs depends on the size of the household and septic tank itself.
When are they emptied:
In some countries, the individual households are responsible for the management and maintenance of their personal septic tanks. In a more controlled environment, health authorities and inspectors usually require the tanks to be drained at certain intervals. Typically, several septic systems require extraction after a few years or even sooner. Again, depending on the septic system itself, intervals of 10 to20 years between pumping is also common. Normally, a certain measurement is made during any inspection process to determine when a septic tank should be drained. To be safe, yearly inspection is probably recommended to prevent any unwanted mishaps.
Where does the waste go:
Gone are the days when disposal companies could dispose of waste in specialised dumpsites. Due to the health hazards that occurred from these past systems, modern waste treatment facilities have been put in place. One might wonder where the waste from these septic tanks is brought. In a government-controlled environment, the government itself provides the rules and regulations to where the waste goes. However, there are a few other possibilities, such as direct dumping into a municipal sewage system or delivery to independent for-profit companies. Several waste treatment facilities also refine waste to transform them into fertilisers. Farmers usually gain the advantage of cheap fertiliser, as municipal systems don’t have to worry about what to do with the waste. Finally, what is probably the most staggering use of septic waste, would be its use to create electricity. This astounding provision is made available through treatment plants. In these facilities, methane gas is produced and broken down to generate electricity through the use of fuel cells. What’s even better is that the electricity produced does not combust, hence resulting in a clean and efficient electrical power source.